Paper Two: Separate Foundation

Exam Date: 20th June 2022



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CH27 - Describe how ideas of the atom have changed

CH28 - Describe the structure of the atom

CH29 - Identify the charge and mass of the sub-atomic particles

CH30 - Explain why atoms are neutral

CH31 - Compare the size of the nucleus to the atom

CH32 - Identify where most of the mass of the atom is

CH33 - Recall the meaning of the term mass number

CH34 - Describe why the atomic number is unique

CH35 - Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom

CH36 - Draw and write the electronic configuration for elements 1-20

CH37 - Relate the electronic configuration to the position on the periodic table

CH38 - Describe what an isotope is

CH39 - Explain why some mass numbers are not whole

CH40 - Calculate the relative atomic mass of an isotope

CH41 - Estimate the abundance of different isotopes

CH42 - Describe how Mendeleev arranged the Periodic Table

CH43 - Describe how Mendeleev predicted the properties of unknown elements

CH44 - Explain why Mendeleev was wrong when he ordered elements by atomic mass

CH45 - Relate the atomic number to the position in the periodic table

CH46 - Describe how the periodic table is structured

CH47 - Explain the position of metals and non-metals on the Periodic Table

CH48 - Explain how ionic bonds form

CH49 - Describe what an ion is

CH50 - Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an ion

CH51 - Explain the formation of ions in groups 1, 2, 6 and 7

CH52 - Draw dot and cross diagrams to show ionic bonding

CH53 - Explain the use of the endings –ide & –ate in compounds

CH54 - Work out the formula of ionic compounds when given the charges of the ions

CH55 - Explain the lattice structure of ionic compounds

CH56 - Explain why ionic compounds have high melting points

CH57 - Explain why ionic compounds only conduct when molten

CH58 - Explain what a covalent bond is

CH59 - Describe what a molecule is

CH60 - Identify the size of covalent molecules

CH61 - Use dot and cross diagrams to explain covalent bonding

CH62 - Explain why simple covalent compounds have low melting points

CH63 - Explain why simple covalent compounds do not conduct electricity

CH64 - Use Diamond and Graphite to explain what giant covalent substances are

CH65 - Describe the structures of graphite and diamond

CH66 - Explain the uses of diamond and graphite

CH67 - Explain the properties of fullerenes and graphene

CH68 - Explain why metals have high melting points

CH69 - Explain why metals can conduct electricity

CH70 - Explain why metals are malleable

CH71 - Describe the properties of metals and non-metals

CH72 - Describe what polymers are

CH73 - Describe the limitations of models

CH74 - Recall the properties of each type of bonding

CH75 - Identify the type of bonding occurring from a table of properties

CH76 - Explain how to investigate the type of bonding occurring

CH77 - Explain how and why elements and compounds can be classified

CH78 - Calculate relative formula mass

CH79 - Calculate the empirical formulae of a compound from reacting masses

CH80 - Work out the simplest ratio and molecular formula of a compound

CH81 - Describe an experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide

CH82 - Explain the law of conservation of mass

CH83 - Calculate masses of reactants and products from balanced equations

CH84 - Calculate the concentration in g dm⁻³

CH85 - Describe the moles of a substance, including Avogadro's constant

CH86 - Calculate the number of moles, mass and particles of a substance

CH87 - Describe what the limiting reactant is in a chemical reaction

CH88 - Deduce the stoichiometry of a reaction from the masses of the reactants and products

CH181 - Identify the different groups in the Periodic Table

CH182 - Recall the physical properties of the alkali metals

CH183 - Describe the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water

CH184 - Describe the pattern in reactivity of the alkali metals

CH185 - Explain the reactivity of the alkali metals

CH186 - Explain why the noble gases are chemically inert

CH187 - Explain the uses of the noble gases

CH188 - Describe the pattern in the physical properties of the noble gases

CH189 - Recall the colours and states of Cl2, Br2 & I2

CH190 - Describe the properties of the halogens

CH191 - Describe the chemical test for chlorine

CH192 - Describe the formation of metal halides

CH193 - Describe what happens when hydrogen halides are dissolved in water

CH194 - Describe how to use displacement reactions to prove the reactivity of the halogens

CH195 - Explain displacement reactions of the halogens in terms of oxidation and reductions

CH196 - Explain the reactivity of the halogens in terms of electronic configurations

CH197 - Investigate the effects of changing the conditions on rates of reaction (Core Practical)

CH198 - Explain what is necessary for a chemical reaction to occur

CH199 - Explain how to increase the rate of reaction in terms of collision theory.

CH200 - Interpret graphs of mass, volume or concentration of reactant or product against time

CH201 - Give examples of energy changes in reactions

CH202 - Describe endothermic and exothermic changes in terms of heat energy

CH203 - Draw and label reaction profiles for endothermic and exothermic reactions

CH204 - Explain what happens, in terms of energy, when bonds break and bonds form

CH205 - Explain how a chemical reaction is either exothermic or endothermic overall

CH206 - Calculate the energy change in a reaction given the energies of bonds (in kJ mol⁻¹)

CH207 - Describe what a catalyst is

CH208 - Explain the term activation energy

CH209 - Describe what an enzyme is

CH210 - Explain the effect of catalysts on activation energy

CH211 - Describe what a hydrocarbon is

CH212 - Describe what crude oil is made up of

CH213 - Explain what a homologous series is

CH214 - Describe the term "non-renewable"

CH215 - Describe and explain fractional distillation

CH216 - Recall the names and uses of the fractions of crude oil

CH217 - Explain how the properties of the fractions of crude oil differ from each other

CH218 - Explain the process of cracking

CH219 - Explain why cracking is necessary

CH220 - Describe complete combustion using word and symbol equations

CH221 - Describe what incomplete combustion is using word and symbol equations

CH222 - Explain how carbon monoxide behaves as a toxic gas

CH223 - Describe the problems caused by incomplete combustion

CH224 - Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel in cars

CH225 - Explain how acid rain forms

CH226 - Explain the effects of acid rain

CH227 - Explain how oxides of nitrogen form, and their effects

CH228 - Describe the formation of the Earth's early atmosphere

CH229 - Explain how the Earth's oceans formed

CH230 - Explain how carbon dioxide levels have decreased since the oceans formed

CH231 - Explain the effects of primitive plants on the atmosphere

CH232 - Describe the chemical test for oxygen

CH233 - Explain the greenhouse effect

CH234 - Evaluate the evidence for human activity causing climate change

CH235 - Describe the possible effects of climate change

CH236 - Explain how the effects of climate change can be mitigated

CH237 - Explain why the test for any ion must be unique

CH238 - Describe how to carry out flame tests

CH239 - Describe tests to identify the ions using sodium hydroxide solution

CH240 - Describe the test for ammonia

CH241 - Describe tests to identify different anions

CH242 - Core Practical: Identify the ions in unknown salts

CH243 - Describe the advantages of instrumental methods

CH244 - Evaluate data from a flame photometer

CH245 - Recall and draw the structure of different alkanes

CH246 - Recall and draw the structure of different alkenes

CH247 - Describe the test for alkanes and alkenes

CH248 - Describe the complete combustion of alkanes and alkenes

CH249 - Recall and draw the structure of different alcohols

CH250 - Describe the dehydration of alcohols

CH251 - Core Practical: Investigate the temperature rise per gram by the combustion of alcohols

CH252 - Describe the production of ethanol by fermentation

CH253 - Explain how to obtain a concentrated solution of ethanol by fractional distillation

CH254 - Describe the addition polymerisation of ethene to form polyethene

CH255 - Describe the addition polymerisation of polypropene, PVC and Teflon

CH256 - Deduce the structure of a monomer from the structure of a polymer and vice versa

CH257 - Explain how the uses of polymers are related to their properties

CH258 - Describe the problems associated with polymers

CH259 - Link knowledge of polymers to DNA, Starch and Proteins

CH260 - Recall and draw the structure of carboxylic acids

CH261 - Describe the properties of carboxylic acids

CH262 - Describe how alcohols can be oxidised to produce carboxylic acids

CH263 - Explain what polyesters are using condensation polymerisation

CH264 - Compare the size of nanoparticles with the sizes of atoms and molecules

CH265 - Calculate the surface area- to-volume ratio for nanoparticles

CH266 - Describe how the properties of nanoparticulate materials are related to their uses

CH267 - Explain the risks associated with nanoparticles

CH268 - Describe the physical properties of glass and clay ceramics

CH269 - Describe the physical properties of composites

CH270 - Compare the physical properties of ceramics, polymers, composites, and metals